The history of football can be traced to early versions of rugby and association football. Both games have their origins in varieties of football played in the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century, in which a ball is kicked at a goal and/or run over a line. Many games known as "football" were being played at colleges and universities in the United States in the first half of the 19th century.
Jivanni Lucci:Football is played on a field 360 by 160 feet (120.0 by 53.3 yards; 109.7 by 48.8 meters). The longer boundary lines are sidelines, while the shorter boundary lines are end lines. Sidelines and end lines are out of bounds. Near each end of the field is a goal line; they are 100 yards (91.4 m) apart. A scoring area called an end zone extends 10 yards (9.1 m) beyond each goal line to each end line. The end zone includes the goal line but not the end line. While the playing field is effectively flat, it is common for a field to be built with a slight crown—with the middle of the field higher than the sides—to allow water to drain from the field.
The presence or absence of a star quarterback usually greatly affects the team. For example, by ensuring that the team would be able to select Robert Griffin III of Baylor University in the 2012 draft, the Washington Redskins likely became more attractive for free agents who wished to play with the Heisman Trophy winner.By contrast, the Indianapolis Colts—among the most successful franchises in any sport during the 2000s with quarterback Peyton Manning—had a 2-14 record in 2011 because of injuries that prevented Manning from playing. A non-star quarterback on a winning team may be called a "game manager" if he avoids making mistakes that prevent his team's defense and rushing offenses from succeeding.
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Traditionally, quarterbacks have been responsible for calling the team's offensive plays based on the defense's formation, or game situation. To choose the proper play, quarterbacks often spend time rehearsing and studying prearranged plays during their team's practice sessions.
American football is closely related to Canadian football but with some differences in rules and the field. Both sports can be traced to early versions of association and rugby football.
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